Shimla district is a district of Himachal Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Shimla city. The history of Shimla was clearly started from the period of Anglo-Gurkha war in the beginning of 19th century. The Gurkhas had badly lost at the battle of Kangra at the hands of the Sikhs in the year 1804. There is a hill fortress located at a distance of 60 miles from Shimla and according to some of its natives it was a place where the Gurkhas lost thousands of men in the fight and many others from disease which led to ruin the nearby states and hills of Shimla. During the reign of Gurkhas, they built numerous forts in the surroundings of Shimla. On the other hand the Jagatgarh fortress is very important since it is famous as the origin of the modern Jutogh, one of the renowned military cantonments adjoining Shimla. During different periods of time the place was ruled by different rulers of great dynasties. Finally, it emerged as a separate district in the map of Himachal Pradesh state on 1st September, 1972 on the re-organisation of the districts of the state. After the re-organisation, the earlier Mahasu district lost its entity and a significant portion of it was merged with Shimla. The district of Shimla got its name from the Shimla town which is the district headquarters and now state capital of Himachal Pradesh state.
Ram Kumar, an eminent Indian artist associated with the Progressive artist's group along with greats artists like M.F. Hussain, Tyeb Mehta, S.H. Raza was born in the year 1924 at Shimla. The Government of India honoured him with prestigious Padmashree Award in 1972 and Padma Bhushan Award in 2010.
Geographically, the district lies at 31009'N latitude and 77018'E longitude. The maltitude in the district is 2397 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 47.15% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 5,131 sq kms and it is bounded by Kullu district and Mandi district on the North, Sirmaur district on the South West, Uttarakhand on the South East, Kinnaur district on the East and Solan district on the West. The climate of the district can be characterised as the subtropical highland climate. It remains mostly cool during winters and fairly warm during summers. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1043.9 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 7 sub-divisions namely Shimla (U), Shimla (R), Theog, Chaupal, Rohru, Rampur and Dodra Kawar. Moreover, it comprises 17 sub-districts, 11 towns and 3,231 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 8,14,010 out of which 4,25,039 are males and 3,88,971 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 915 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 12.67% including 11.56% are males and 13.90% are females. The population density in the district is 159 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 97.23%. As per 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 92.12%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 16,022 out of which 8,059 were males and 7,961 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,794 out of which 2,934 were males and 1,859 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are apples, peach, plums, pears, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Now-a-days, the hotel industry is one of the major sources of income for the district. Furthermore, Shimla has the highest ranked hotels in India. In the year 2015-2016 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 15,61,290 lakh at current price in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2015-16 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 12,90,144 lakh at current price in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2015-2016 the Per Capita Income was in Rs. 1,52,230 at Current Price in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Bishop Cotton School, Auckland House School, Shimla Public School, St. Edward's School, Hainault Public School, Dayanand Public School, Himalayan International School, Chapslee School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 83.64% including 89.59% are males and 77.13% are females. The number of literates in the district is 6,12,642 out of which 3,42,846 are males and 2,69,796 are females.
Sardar Simranjit Singh Mann, a veteran Indian politician and the president of the Sikh political party, Shiromani Akali Dal was born in the year 1945 at Shimla. He has severed as the Member of Parliament for two times i.e. from Taran Tarn constituency in 1989 and Sangrur constituency in 1999.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Christ Church, situated on the Ridge is the second oldest church in the Northern India. It looks very beautiful with some stained glass windows which represent the 6 virtues such as faith, hope, charity, fortitude, patience and humility. Shimla State Museum, opened in the year 1974 depicts the cultural richness of the state. There is an antique collection of miniature Pahari paintings, sculptures, bronzes wood-carvings, costumes, textiles and jewellery of the region. Summer Hill, situated at a distance of 5 km. from the Ridge is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. During the lifetime of Mahatma Gandhi, he used to live in this quiet place at the time of his Shimla visits. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Jakhu Hill, Jutogh, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Annandale, Tara Devi and many more.