Mokokchung district is a district of the Nagaland state with its administrative headquarters located at Mokokchung town. It is the home of the Ao Naga tribe. During the period of British Raj in India, the region of Mokokchung was a significant part of the Naga Hills district of Assam state. Mokokchung emerged as a sub-division of Naga Hills district in the year 1889 and also remained as the same till India got its independence in 1947. Naga Hills district remained as a district of Assam until 1957, when it and Tuensang Frontier Division of the North-East Frontier Agency (now Arunachal Pradesh) were merged to create the centrally governed Naga Hills Tuensang area. By that time, Mokokchung subdivision declared as one of the three districts of Nagaland. After sometime February 1961 witnessed the addition of renaming Naga Hills Tuensang Area to Nagaland and then in December 1963 Nagaland came out as the 16th state of India. Finally in December 1973, the new districts namely Zunheboto and Wokha carved out from the Mokokchung, leaving the borders of this district as it stands today.
Geographically, the district lies at 26032' N latitude and 94051' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 1325 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 82.20% forest area of total geographical area. It is located at an elevation of 1325 m above sea level. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,615 sq km. and it is bounded by Assam on the North, Zunheboto district on the South, Tuensang district on the East and Wokha district on the West. There are several Ranges that run more or less parallel to each other in North-east or South-west direction of the district. The entire Mokokchung district is conveniently sub-divided into some Ranges namely, Tzurangkong Range, Japukong Range, Changkikong Range, Asetkong Range, Langpangkong Range and Ongpangkong Range. The major rivers that flows through the district are Melak, Dikhu and Tsurang. The climate of the Mokokchung district remains mild throughout the year. In the rainy months it witnesses a lot of mist. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1525.6 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 sub-divisions namely Mokokchung, Tuli, Mangkolemba and Changtongya. It also has 9 administrative/revenue circles likewise Ongpangkong, Tuli, Chuchuyimlang, Changtongya, Mangkolemba, Kubolong, Alongkima, Longchem and Merangmen. Moreover, it comprises 4 towns and 108 villages. The administrative language in the district is English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 1,94,622 including 1,01,092 are males and 93,530 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 925 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 949 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -16.14% including -16.40% were males and -15.86% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 93.44% of the total population. The population density in the district is 121 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Ao with 86.45%. The major schedule tribe population in the district are Naga and Ao with 99.26% and 93.43%. As per 2011 census the percentage of the rural and urban population in the district is 28.63% (Urban) and 71.37% (Rural). In the year 2017 the number of live births was 4,873 out of which 2,399 were males and 2,474 were females. In the same year the number of deaths was 216 out of which 148 were males and 68 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on the agricultural activities. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, tuber, maize, soybeans, pea, mustard, tea, orange, etc. Now-a-days some of its farmers are applying various advanced technologies in their agricultural fields to increase the production level. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. But the district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few small scale industries. Some of its prominent industrial regions are Changki Valley, Tsurang Valley, Lower Milak-Tuli Region, Dikhu-Chichung Valleys, etc.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are English Kinder Garden School, Model Higher Secondary School, Edith Douglas School, Queen Mary's School, Jubilee Memorial School, Hill View School, Clark Theological College, Fazl Ali College, People's College, Yimyu College, Nagaland Bible College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 91.62% including 92.18% are males and 91.01% are females. The literate population in the district are 1,59,494 out of which 83,479 are males and 76,015 are females. The illiterate population in the district are 35,128 including 17,613 are males and 17,515 are females.
P. Shilu Ao, a veteran Indian politician who involved in the negotiations leading to the creation of Nagaland as one of the north-east state of India in December 1963 was born on 24th December, 1916 at Longjang village of the district. Ao was the first Chief Minister of Nagaland until August 1966. He was the one who played a significant role in persuading the Indian Government and Lok Sabha to accept statehood of Nagaland. Senayangba Chubatoshi Jamir, an eminent Indian politician and present Governor of Odisha was born on 17th October, 1931 at Ungma village in the Mokokchung district. Earlier, he has also served as the Chief Minister of Nagaland, Governor of Maharashtra, Governor of Gujarat and Governor of Goa.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Longkhum, located at a distance of 12 km. from city centre is a beautiful place full of mesmerising natural sceneries. Ungma Village, situated at a distance of 3 km. from city centre is the second largest village in the state of Nagaland. It is believed to be the birthplace of the Ao tribe and hence it depicts the rich culture and tradition of Ao. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Molung Village, Chuchuyinlang Village, Peren Cave, Fusen kei Cave, Mongzu Ki Cave, Langpangkong Cave and many more.