Historically, Hindu, Muslim, Maratha and British ruled over the Jagatsinghpur region for a long period of time. In 1748, Jagat Singh was appointed as revenue collector by the Mararthas. He collected the peshkush and Nazrana and remained safe from any outside force and uninterrupted administrator for quite a long period. The name of the place was changed from Hariharpur to Jagatsinghpur after Jagat Singh since 1786. The Jagatsinghpur District, created on 1st April, 1993 was one of the outcome of the bifurcation of earlier district of Cuttack into four new districts. This new district was inaugurated by the then Chief Minister Biju Patnaik in an auspicious ceremony in November 1997. But the foundation stone to the District Collectorate was laid in November 1995 by the then Deputy Chief Minister Basant Kumar Biswal.
Sarala Dasa or Sarala Das was a poet and the first scholar of Odiya literature of 15th century. Gopal Chhotray is known as one of the chief architects of modern Oriya theatre. He is honored with the prestigious awards likewise Padma Shri in 2002, Sarala Award in 2000, Bisuba Award in 1992, Sahitya Akademi Award in 1982, Odisha Sahitya Akademi awards in 1976 and Kendriya Sangeet Natak Akademi. Ranjib Biswal is a former domestic Indian cricketer in Odisha and the former Chairman of Indian Premier League. He was also the captain of India in Under-19 cricket against Pakistan. He was also appointed as the administrator of the selection committee.
Geographically, the district has a total 1,668 sq. kms. area and occupies the rank 30th in State and 536th in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 20°20'N latitude, 86°34'E longitude and 14 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 8.20% forest area of total geographical area. It is bounded by the Kendrapara District and Cuttack District in the North, Puri District in the South West, Bay of Bengal in the South and South East and Khordha District in the West. Alika, Biluakhai, Kusumi, Kuanri are Lunijhara the main rivers of the district. The climate of the district is extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2274.1 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 10 sub-districts, 4 towns and 1,292 villages. Oriya is its official language. It has its administrative headquarters located at Jagatsinghpur which is situated at a distance of 65 kms. from the State Capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 2,65,588 households with a total population of 11,36,971 comprising 5,77,865 are males, and 5,59,106 are females which leads it to rank 19th in the state and 409th in India. The density of population of the district is 682 (persons per sq. km). The sex ratio is pegged at 968 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 929 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region is Hindu with 95.53% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period of 2001-2011 was 7.50% including 7.23% were males and 7.78% were females. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Oriya with 92.32%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 11,761 out of which 6,200 were males and 5,561 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 8,291 out of which 4,637 were males and 3,654 were females.
Economically, the district is dependent on industries primarily. In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 6,78,960 lakhs at current price and Rs. 4,23,913 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2011-12 was Rs. 5,01,315 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,94,855 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2011-12 was Rs. 43,946 at current price and Rs. 25,848 at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. Paradeep Port is located here which is the largest port of Odisha. Paddy, sugarcane, turmeric, cotton are the major agricultural products here. The main industry of the region is fertilizer factory. Paradeep Phosphates Limited, a fertilizer company, Paradeep Plastic Park Limited, IFFCO-Fertilizer Plant, Essar Steel's Pellet plant, Indian Oil marketing terminal, Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) Refinery, Bharat Petroleum Corp. Ltd. marketing terminal, Hindustan Petroleum Corp. Ltd. marketing terminal., Cargill's edible oil plant and Skol Breweries Ltd. (Unit-East Coast Brewery) are the name of the some main industries in the region.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 86.59% persons out of which 92.38% are males and 80.63% are females. The total literate population of the district is 8,89,027 persons including 4,81,049 are males and 4,07,978 are females. S.V.M Autonomous College is one of the famous colleges in the district here, established in the year 1963. It offers undergraduate courses in arts, science and commerce and also some pominent professional courses like BBA, BCA, BA, LLB, etc.
Nabakrushna Choudhuri, a progressive Chief Minister of Odisha and a social activist was born in the Jagatsinghpur district.
The district has many historical and religious places to visit. These places are Sarala Pitha (Jhankad), Paradeep, Gada Kujanga, Sandhakuda, Jagatsinghpur, Chandapur. In the year 2018, there were total 14,08,130 domestic tourists and 3,690 foreign tourists who visited these places. Gorakhnath Temple is the famous Lord Shiva Shrines. Paradip is a major beautiful sea port and a major attraction. Gada Kujanga is known for Lord Kunja Behari. Chandapur has the famous temples of Lord Raghunath Jew and Lord Chandrasekhar in a single compound. Jagatsinghpur is famous for its temples, beaches, sculptures, etc. Alaka Ashram in Jagatsinghpur is called the Shabarmati of Odisha. The famous Somanath temple is also located here. Siali beach and Tulasi gadi temple are big tourist attractions. The one of the oldest temples, Jagannath temple also attracts tourists a lot. Jagannath temple in Ambasal (approximately 2 kms. from Balikuda Block) is considered as one of the oldest temples. Sarala Pitha is dedicated to of Goddess Sarala. It is one of the eight Shakti Pithas.