Malkangiri district is a district of Odisha state with its administration headquarters located at Malkangiri town. After India got its independence, the place of Malkangiri was carved out as a separate district from the undivided Koraput district in the map of Odisha state on 1st April, 1993. Since 1965 till today Malkangiri is the new home of the Bangladeshi refugees, who were rehabilitated under the Dandakaranya Project. On the other hand some Sri Lankan Tamil refugees were also rehabilitated in the town of Malkangiri due to the armed struggle of LTTE in the early 90's. At present, it is a part of the Red-Corridor. The history of Malkangiri is the evident of its glorious past. Once upon a time the place is full of dense forests, small but beautiful rivers, plateaus with numerable rolls and splendorous rich tribal culture. The human civilization of Malkangiri was started some 2500 years ago. In the ancient period, the place had witnessed many my thological events that took place in and around it. Furthermore, the place was ruled by different prominent rulers during different periods of time.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°00' N latitude and 94°20' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 178 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 40.14% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 5,791 sq kms. and it is bounded by Koraput district on the North, Andhra Pradesh on the South and East and Chhattisgarh on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Sabari, Silleru, Potteru, Kolab and Machhkunda. The climate of the district is extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. Most its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1589.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district has only one sub-division namely Malkangiri. Moreover, it comprises 11 sub-districts, 3 towns and 1,055 villages. The administrative language in the district is Oriya.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 6,13,192 out of which 3,03,624 are males and 3,09,568 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1020 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 21.62% including 20.24% are males and 23.00% are females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 97.88% of the total population. The population density in the district is 106 (persons per sq. kms.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Oriya, Koya and Bengali with 41.99%, 23.40% and 21.48%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 13,851 out of which 7,112 were males and 6,739 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,900 out of which 4,093 were males and 2,807 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on the agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, groundnut, sesame, mango, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is also rich in mineral resources like tin, limestone, black granite, asbestos, mica, kyanite, soap stones, etc. But the district is scantily industrialised. It has a Power Station at Balimela which will pass through the proposed Vijaywada-Ranchi corridor road. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Malkangiri one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640) and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,83,537 lakhs at current price and Rs. 1,11,568 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2011-12 was Rs. 1,67,814 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,00,936 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2011-12 was Rs. 27,122 at current price and Rs. 16,313 at constant prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Govt. High School, one of the oldest schools of the district is located in its Mathili region, follows the Board of secondary Education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 48.54% including 59.07% are males and 38.28% are females. The literate population in the district is 2,44,706 out of which 1,47,001 are males and 97,705 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Some its notable places of interest are Balimela, Chitrakonda, Motu, Raja Rani Bandha, Satiguda, Bonda Hills, Ammakunda, Manyamkonda and many more. In the year of 2019, there were total 2,14,413 domestic tourists and 6 foreign tourists who visited here.